Péter Molnár

What Is AI?

Humanly Rationally

The cognitive modeling approach

"The exciting new effort to make computer think...machines with minds, in the full and literal sense." (Haugland, 1985)

"[The automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision-making, problem solving, learning..." (Bellman, 1978)

The "laws of throught" approach

"The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models." (Charniak and McDermott, 1985)

"The study of computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act." (Winston, 1992)


The Turing Test approach

"The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people." (Kurzweil, 1990)

"The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better." (Rich and Knight, 1991)

The rational agent approach

"Computational Intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent agents." (Pool et al., 1998)

"AI...is concerned with intelligent behavior in artifacts." (Nilsson, 1998)

The Hype

  1. Media reporting about Artificial Intelligence
  2. Companies branding with AI. E.g. IBM Watson, Cortana by Microsoft, Apple's Siri, Google's WaveNet https://www.forbes.com/sites/onmarketing/2016/10/04/branding-artificial-intelligence/
  3. Increased investment in AI technologies https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/race-ai-google-twitter-intel-apple-rush-grab-startups-varadharajan

The Threat

Is it just a matter of time?

Great minds seem to be worried... https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericmack/2015/01/28/bill-gates-also-worries-artificial-intelligence-is-a-threat/

"Superintellegence" by Nick Bostrom


A couple of links to the historiy of AI

What makes AI possible?

AI algorithms are mainly based on two paradigms

State Space Search

Gradient Descent

Democratization of AI

Significant progress (in particular in Deep Learning) has been made due to

The End?